A machine tool used for general purpose basically comprises of power drive and kinematic system to accommodate work motion. In addition to these there are other components that are needed for the general functioning of the machine. These are called accessories which help in holding the workpiece and cutting tools. The type of machining required is dependent on the size and kind of tool.

Accessories and their strength

Shaper machine is composed of different accessories.

  • Ram: Ram is the most essential component of shaper machine. It does the work of holding the tool and providing the reciprocation to it. There is a back and forth movement of ram which is called stroke. Slotted link mechanism drives the ram in its slides. You can adjust this part according to the length of the workpiece. Quick return mechanism is used for ram movement
  • Base: It is a heavy cast iron which is fixed to the floor and supports the frame of the body and load of the machine. During the ongoing shaping motion base absorbs the vibrations and forces.
  • Body: The body consists of pillar, frame and column. It is mounted on the bed of the base and helps in housing the drive mechanism. Top of the body generates guideways for ram and the front part generates ram for cross rail.
  • Table: Shaper uses two kinds of table, plain table and universal table. As shaper uses smaller workpiece so it can be placed on table.
  • Crossrail: On the front of the body cross rail remains mounted and the body frame provides it up and down movement. In shaping machine cross rail movement occurs vertically. It can accommodate work-piece of different heights below the tool.
  • Saddle: Saddle slides along the cross rail carrying the table. It moves crosswise to cause work table to shift sideways.
  • Toolhead: Tool head is situated at the front of the ram by use of T-bolts. You can swivel tool head from 0 to 90 in a vertical plane. There are vertical cuts in the workpiece that helps in raising and lowering of tool head.
  • Toolslide: Tool slide is an additional part that controls the feed rate of the cutting tool into workpiece with the utilization of lead screw.
  • Clapperbox: It allows the tool for cutting to lift on the return stroke otherwise the tool gets damaged. You need this to drag back the tool through the uncut workpiece.
  • Toolpost: Its job is to carry the cutting tool.

End note

The strength of shaper depends on its parts and working mechanism. The rotary movement of shaper is driven by quick return mechanism.  In a standard shaper a metal is removed in the forward cutting stroke while no metal is removed during return stroke. The accessories strength is used to make a slot, cut, groove or a keyway and to produce flat or plane surface. To do the job of metal shaping correctly all the accessories are essential and noteworthy.

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